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Reverse osmosis equipment often occur off phenomenon, the length divided into short and long-term disabled disabled based on time, no matter what kind are not allowed to use the proper protective measures, if carried out incorrectly or not protective measures to take protective measures, will result reverse osmosis membrane performance degradation, even shorten equipment Suitable for short-term storage system outage 5-30 days old, may be low pressure flush every 5 days ways to protect the reverse osmosis water treatment equipment, it should be noted that, the water temperature must be above 20 ℃. Also note that the gas is completely excluded from the system, the use of membrane permeate water flush membrane system will help prevent contamination. After each flush valve to be closed on all export and import of reverse osmosis water purification equipment device to prevent gas entering the system. Suitable for long-term disabled protection system outage more than 15 days, then the solution must be protected (fungicide) filled with water purification equipment, reverse osmosis equipment protection. When the full fungicide reverse osmosis membrane system, close the valve and pump to retain the fungicide in the membrane system, it should confirm that the system is fully charged if the temperature is below 27 degrees, should be every 30 days to re-use the new fungicide cleaning, if the temperature is above 27 degrees, the fungicide should be replaced once every 15 days. Before the reverse osmosis membrane system back into use, low-pressure water flushing system for one hour and then use high-pressure water rinsing system for 5-10 minutes. But whether it is produced water discharge valve high pressure washing or flushing the low pressure, the system shall be fully open. Before restoring the system to normal water system, check that the water produced does not contain any fungicides.
Water treatment industry is both an ancient industry is an emerging industry. Hundreds of years ago people knew with alum can purify water. However, on an industrial scale water treatment, and used in modern industrial and urban, so that more water after treatment to achieve the increasing demands of mankind, only five or six years of history, only 30 years of history in China. Water treatment agent, also known as water treatment chemicals, refers to a variety of water treatment chemicals must be used, common chemicals such as: acids, alkalis, salts, etc. are not included therein. Currently, water treatment agent can be divided into two categories: First, there is a clear structure and molecular compounds are named chemicals, fine chemicals is a part; the second is water treatment agent formulations (hereinafter referred to as "complex products"), no clear molecular structure and compound name, its purpose, performance characteristics (often dubbed grades) named products. Such products are often aimed at a specific market development and production, to be accompanied by strong technical service to sell. People often referred to as the first products of special water treatment agent, and the second type of product called a dedicated water treatment agent. Water treatment agent plays a key role in the treatment process. Although water treatment technologies biochemical, physical, physico-chemical methods, and there are always new techniques and technologies into the market, but it is very difficult to completely replace the role of chemicals. Therefore, it will remain water treatment equipment and water treatment agent called two wings of the water treatment industry, hoping to rely on these two wings to achieve water treatment industry to take off. In recent years, with the steady growth in demand for water treatment agent, a global power, steel, petrochemical, urban water and other global water treatment chemicals market in 2007 from $ 18.29 billion in 2014 to grow to $ 25.64 billion, an average annual increase in the size of the industry speed is about 5%. 2007--2014 global water treatment chemicals market size chart Source: Chilean research data center consolidation The formation and development of water treatment industry, along with the process of rapid economic development and industrialization of the city, and the shortage of human awareness of environmental protection of water resources for the development of water treatment industry growth provided a driving force and huge market, the development of China's water treatment agent with the introduction of modern water treatment technology and developed, development time about 30 years later than in developed countries, but rapid development, it has been formed independent research and industrialization of the system. Development of Chinese water treatment chemicals can be divided into two phases: from 1974 to 1989 as a first stage, namely the introduction of absorption and localization stage, the goal is to build China water treatment agent research and manufacturing system; from 1990 to 2000 for the first 2 stage, innovative R & D and industrialization phase. Goal is to establish China water treatment agents and technology system has independent intellectual property rights. So far, China has more than 100 kinds of water treatment products. Various water treatment agent from production to quality has basically meet the domestic demand, and exports of some products. Technically, production technology and the performance of some products has been in the international advanced level. 2013--2014, China's water treatment chemicals industry sales chart Source: Chilean research data center consolidation Traditionally, a single dose of water treatment agent water treatment agent production enterprises and production complex business models vary. 1) single-dose treatment agent production business model as shown below: Water treatment agent single agent production business model Source: Public data compilation As described in FIG., A single dose of water treatment agent manufacturers, mainly through wholesalers to sell products or intermediate technology services company, the latter serving end customers. 2) water treatment agent production complex enterprise business model: Water treatment agent production complex business models Source: Public data compilation As described in FIG, complex production companies typically produced goods and services directly to end customers, but also to provide product support and technical services company. The difference between the two modes is that a single dose does not need a strong sales and technical services, but will provide product suppliers, performance, specifications, safety data, and the field of use to the customer, but will leave a large number of other technical services technical services company. Complex products prior to sale, the need for the customer's water quality, equipment, materials, process parameters (temperature, flow rate, etc.), process water systems and technology and other detailed surveys and solicit clients in treatment costs, concentration ratio, water and other aspects of demand, based on laboratory screening, verification, proposed treatment program, signed a technical service contract. Currently, part of the water treatment agent single dose manufacturers are also involved in the technical services, self-developed formula products, services, end customers, presenting a mixed operating characteristics. Both feature two modes of operation of the mixing is becoming the major domestic manufacturers of development. Specific mode as shown below:
In order to prevent the use of oil pipelines and equipment corrosion and fouling in serious condition, corrosion and scale inhibitor must be added to ensure the safe operation of equipment. These chemicals will eventually be discharged as waste into the environment. With the increasing awareness of environmental protection, various types of water treatment chemicals also put forward higher requirements, increasingly stringent environmental regulations, chromium corrosion due to the environmental aspects of their use is limited because of the phosphorus-based formula phosphorus-containing compound is easy to nourish bacteria and algae, water eutrophication, has been to limit emissions, the concept of "green water treatment agent," came into being. Thus, the series of non-phosphorus chromium, environmentally friendly all-organic polymer having a corrosion and scale performance, copolymers and other "green" products will become an important direction of domestic and foreign water treatment research. 1 containing phosphine Corrosion Inhibitor 1.1 organic phosphonic acid organic phosphonic acid molecule refers to a class of compounds containing both carboxyl and phosphonate group. Developed in the late 1970s 2-phosphonate butane 1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTCA), in the whole organic formula it shows it both excellent corrosion and scale inhibition performance. Related research in recent years active again. The compound chemical stability, good thermal stability, low toxicity (P0i-l1.5%), on c ~ co3, Ca3 (PO4) 2, CaSO4, Mssio3 have a good scale inhibition, and difficult to form insoluble organic phosphonate deposits with zinc and other dispersant component synergies good administration dosage 5-15mg · L-1, is a highly effective corrosion inhibitors [2]. Beijing Dayu fine chemicals company [3] developed a 605 BC corrosion inhibitors, the experiment is an excellent water stabilizer, its performance has reached Japan Awada's KURIZET S-112 and KURIZT S-113 standard, widely used in petrochemical, metallurgical and other circulating water treatment equipment. 1.2 amino acid molecules 1990s Calgon Corporation pioneered the development of multi-amino polyether methylene phosphonate (PAPEMP) (relative average molecular weight of about 600), the introduction of an ether bond, a hydrophilic superior in the molecule can be simultaneously prevent CaCO3, Ca3 (PO4) 2 scale, with high calcium tolerance, the ability to scale than the organic acid and polymer, silicon dirt is also very effective, and can be well stabilized iron, zinc, manganese oxide, good corrosion performance, especially for high concentration index. Our country has also made a breakthrough, is working on industrialization. Zhang Jun and other synthetic glycine parylene acid (GDMP), on inhibiting calcium carbonate scale performance is better than ATMP, good corrosion performance, with significant synergistic effect with zinc complex. In addition, on ethanolamine methylene phosphonate, research methylenephosphonic acid alkanolamides also underway. 1.3 Phosphorus Phosphorus polymer refers to a polymer molecular structure containing both a phosphono group, a carboxyl group, a sulfonic acid group or the like polymers. The coexistence of a variety of functional groups, so that both the organic acid and strong chelating polymers high dispersion, scale and corrosion inhibition performance, structural stability, low phosphorus content (P043- less than 5%), toxicity and good compatibility with other agents. If the amount of 5mg · L-1, the entire system is less than the amount of phosphorus 0.25mg.L-1, it may be entirely composed of micro-phosphorus or phosphorus-free water treatment formula, so in recent years become a hot research and development at home and abroad. 1.3.1 between PCA (PCA) is generally divided into two categories: the phosphino polyacrylic acid (phosphino PAA) and a phosphine group polymaleic acid (phosphino PMA), respectively, acrylic acid (from) and maleic acid (MA) as the basic monomer, peroxide and sodium hypophosphite (0Z can be regarded as a monomer) as initiator, copolymerization with other monomers together. Nalco Company in the late 1970s found that phosphine group PAA for corrosion and scale inhibition with HEDP, zinc and more water-soluble polymers of various formulations, there are obvious synergies phosphino PMA low the amount of time it has good scale and corrosion inhibition of certain properties of high calcium tolerance, stability at high temperature and pressure, inhibition of BaSO4 better than the former. 1980s, Betz has found, PCA and synergies from a Ⅲ, A (hydroxypropyl acrylate) after compound for inhibiting CaCO Ca3 (1O4) 2 dirt and iron oxide dispersion and slime. Into the 1990s, Mogul company also found that phosphine group of MgSiO3 PAA has some ability to dissolve dirt, make research active again. At present, the main products are A hypophosphorous acid, AA / HPA / hypophosphite, MA / hypophosphite, MA / AA / hypophosphorous acid, AA / AMPS / AM / hypophosphorous acid and other binary, ternary or tetrapolymers. 1.3.2 phosphonocarboxylic acid polymer (PoCA) in the late 1990s, the FMC developed macromolecular organic phosphorus compound, can both scale and corrosion in the cooling water system with chlorine hardly function, a high calcium tolerance is considered a truly versatile agent having the following structure: R can be a propylene sulfonate, acrylate, monomers such as the ATMS. Domestic research on phosphorus-containing polymer began in the late 1980s, Diaoyue Min and other water as a solvent, in the catalyst by the hydrolysis of polymaleic acid, acrylic acid and hypophosphorous acid copolymer, one-step synthesis of phosphonate group MA / AA copolymer was, at Home and Abroad synthesized isopropenyl acid (IPPA) AA / HPA terpolymers with scale, corrosion double effect. Since the sulfonic acid copolymer Ca3 (PO4) 2 scale and organic acid has good scale inhibition, and can stabilize metal ions, effectively disperse particles, in the case of calcium gel is not easy, therefore, recent studies have focused on phosphine sulfonic acid synthesis multifunctional polymers. Zhangying Xiong et] developed a multi-copolymer containing a sulfonic acid group, a carboxyl group, a phosphonic acid group and some non-ionic groups, which can effectively suppress CaCO3, MgSi03, dispersing iron oxide and zinc salts, alkaline water system adaptation; Cui phosphorus-containing acrylic copolymer AMPS Xiaoming and other prepared suppression Ca3 (PO4) 2 scale, stable and zinc oxide dispersion performance than HEDP and a AMPS. 1.4 New non-phosphorus corrosion inhibitors 15 mg · L), the presence of a plurality of sulfonic acid groups is to ensure the dispersion performance has greatly improved the deficiencies of the organic acid. 1.4.1 alkyl epoxy carboxylate (AEC) is a new non-phosphorus Betz developed resistance, nitrogen corrosion inhibitors, has high calcium tolerance, high temperature resistance, chlorine resistance, It can replace organic phosphonate corrosion and scale inhibitors. When combined with a small amount of phosphate or zinc salt, the carbon steel has good corrosion inhibition, which can be composed of phosphorus (zinc) recipe for high pH, ​​high alkalinity cooling, high hardness and high concentration of water systems, and environmentally acceptable. These compounds, although high activity, low toxicity, but does not have the biodegradability. 1.4.2 Tungsten stabilizer in recent years developed a new type of non-chromium-phosphorus corrosion inhibitors, mainly developed by the country, the use of tungsten as sodium tungstate inhibitor. Passivation is the anodic inhibitor, it adsorbed on the metal surface and the divalent iron ions to form non-protective complex. Divalent iron into ferric iron is dissolved, so that the iron complex into a tungstate iron tungstate, passivation film formed on the metal. The precondition for this film is the presence of dissolved oxygen. Is characterized by pollution, corrosion performance is better than molybdenum and phosphorus-based, can be run under a basic, easy to operate. It is corrosion effect on steel, copper, copper alloy, aluminum, zinc. Prevent steel corrosion and stress corrosion of stainless steel have a better effect chlorine ion pairs. East China University of anticorrosive Center Tan Weigang, etc. According to our rich resources of tungsten ore, reserves, production and export volume accounted for first in the world, from environmental protection and sustainable development will be the height of the tungsten-based water treatment agent is phosphate-free research, chose zinc sulfate, benzotriazole (BTA), polyaspartic acid (PASP) and normal operation as agent sodium tungstate compound. This is to reduce corrosion hazards, water conservation, promote the use of green chemistry is important. 1.4.3 polyaspartate J (PASP) is a kind of phosphate-free, biodegradable good green corrosion inhibitors, which is a polymer of amino acids naturally present in the class of mollusks and snails shell, not only water-soluble acid having a valuable biodegradable, non-toxic and pollution-free, is a kind of environmentally friendly water treatment agent, is recognized as a green polymer and water treatment agent replacements. Polyaspartic acid is aspartic acid or maleic anhydride as a raw material synthesized with a biodegradable, scale rate and so on. Huo Yu Ning, etc. succeeded in synthesizing a relative molecular weight of 40,000 polyaspartic acid, and its properties were studied. It was found that when the drug dosing concentration of 2.0 mg · L when the inhibition rate reached 100%. Polyaspartic carboxylic acid functional group is hindered Caco3, CaSO4 scale major functional groups, and an amide group of Ca3 (PO4) 2 scale benefit, so polyaspartic acid has good scale and corrosion inhibition properties. Different synthesis process, different scale performance of different molecular weight poly-aspartic acid. Liu Guohua and other first tungstate PASP practical research and development complex formulations, treatment formulation containing mainly: tungstate, polyaspartic acid (PASP), zinc sulfate, sodium benzoate, sodium gluconate. Screened tungsten phosphorus water treatment agent, was in line with the recipe does not contain phosphorus and heavy metals in the green corrosion inhibitors, corrosion coupon rate of 0.0124mm · a-1, the corrosion rate was 98.71%, resistance dirt was 91.67%. 1.4.4 PESA (PESA) is a recent development of non-phosphorus, non-nitrogen, with good biological degradation activity of green water treatment agent, not only excellent scale inhibition and dispersion performance, but also has some corrosion inhibition, and other pharmaceutical compound can form a better performance of low-phosphorus or phosphorus-free formula for high alkali and high solid water system. Alkaline hydrolysis of maleic anhydride as a raw material to make it generate maleate, then sodium tungstate as catalyst in the hydrogen peroxide into oxygen maleate epoxy succinate, and then the epoxy into oxygen succinate, ethyl or methyl ester based, in the absence of an inert solvent system or ring-opening polymerization system, and then hydrolysis of the polymer obtained, to obtain PESA. You can also use a monovalent or divalent cation or an organic amine cation will PESA part of carboxyl groups into the salt form. Japan Co., Ltd. Hua Wang of PESA application performance conducted experimental research results show that the performance scale PESA was better than sodium polyacrylate, maleic acid and tartaric acid, and has a corrosion performance. XIONG Rongchun to domestic research team headed first to start research work in this area, and has made encouraging progress, the synthesis of ideas is worth learning from. Green is undoubtedly the 21st century, the development of water treatment chemicals. Therefore, future work should focus on performance, economy, environment three objectives, in a further improvement of existing products, improving quality, based on the study of the mechanism should be strengthened and research complex, lower costs, reduce pollution; accelerate resource advantages of having molybdenum, tungsten-based water treatment agent research and application; in the synthesis of new products, we must break the existing ideas, and actively use green chemistry technology, the target molecule is first green, the use of clean technology, synthetic phosphorus, non-nitrogen , non-toxic, readily biodegradable, environmentally friendly and truly efficient corrosion inhibitors, to completely replace the phosphorus-containing formulations.
Industrial sewage, wastewater treatment is a big problem plagued petrochemical enterprises, research and development has also been a hot spot. Our refinery wastewater treatment and reuse technology, new breakthroughs, refinery wastewater reuse rate of 80%, effective solution to the Northern Shaanxi refinery wastewater reuse in scaling, corrosion and bacteria and algae problems. Currently using this technology have been built five demonstration projects, create economic benefits for the application of the unit a total of about 87.62 million yuan. The technology has three major innovations. 1, sewage treatment system physicochemical methods and biological treatment methods are effectively integrated, forming a flocculation and sedimentation BAF + + + ozone sterilization activated carbon filter integrated process. 2, developed a scale and corrosion inhibitors, biocides, effective solution to the high hardness, high chlorine ion, high sulfate-containing refinery wastewater reuse in scaling, corrosion and bacteria and algae problems. 3, the first time a high hardness, high chlorine ion, high sulfate-containing refinery wastewater to circulating cooling water systems, oil refining wastewater reuse rate of 80%. The technology in a refinery after a year of practice runs showed that 80% of treated water is recycled to the circulating cooling water system, carbon steel corrosion rate of 0.085 mm / year, Sinopec have reached the standard of "good" level. Currently, the technology has reached domestic leading level in the refinery wastewater treatment and reuse aspects. Refinery wastewater treatment and reuse technology based in northern Shaanxi high oil, high salt, high hardness of refinery wastewater reuse study, the BAF + flocculation + activated carbon filter integrated technology processing refinery wastewater with high salinity can water is used as cooling water, circulating water system under certain water conditions, sterilized, scale, corrosion after treatment, the corrosion rate of carbon steel is less than 0.1 mm / year.
Circulating water treatment agent inhibitors are made of an acrylic copolymer and its esters, organic phosphine, copper corrosion inhibitor compound is made in the circulating cooling water system can effectively prevent the formation of a variety of dirt and the like, to prevent phosphine formation of calcium effects, good scale inhibition at elevated temperatures and alkaline conditions. So suitability cycle inhibitors have? Then detailed introduce: 1, circulating water inhibitors in the electrostatic repulsion of the copolymer is dissolved in water adsorbed on inorganic crystallites that repulsion between the particles increases, hindering their coalescence, so they are in a good state of dispersion, thereby preventing or reduce the formation of scale by; 2, may occur after the copolymer is dissolved in water ionization generated with the negatively charged molecule chain, it Ca2 + to form water-soluble complexes or chelate, thereby increasing the solubility of inorganic salts, played the role of scale ; 3, its lattice distortion occupy a certain position, obstruct and sabotage the normal growth of inorganic crystals slows the growth rate of the crystal, thereby reducing the formation of salt scale. These are the information about the cycle inhibitors, hoping to help you, any questions, please contact us.
About water treatment agent manufacturers change has not changed or whether lopsided lists the following three questions: The first question: the customer doubts (doubts) water treatment agent suppliers Why normal? Only two points: ① to spend money; ② related to their own interests. Another point of understanding, if I, as a customer purchasing scale and corrosion inhibitor, then I question because I spend money to buy a scale and corrosion inhibitor, if the end product is not suitable for the actual situation of their own use or the use of no effect, and that two people and it is not empty? In the end only had dragged "taken advantage", which makes more tragedy! Yes, my company as a manufacturer of water treatment agent, will not let you get to the final, "a sieve." You spend money we help you solve the problem of handling, that is our attitude. The second question: how do you know the supplier of water treatment agent in the end change has not changed what signs? To be able to use three words summed up substantially change those signs: perfunctory, Dodge, unprofessional. For example, say that you find aftermarket suppliers deal with the problem unresolved, Dodge has not promptly resolve the problem. In other words, the choice of water treatment chemicals manufacturer suppliers, some so-called signs and changes in their note if so, can be found as early as possible in advance to avoid. The procurement of water treatment chemicals products, of course, to choose the "pretty" that the "principle" that water treatment agent vendor / supplier Corrosion Inhibitor is also true! To give an example: antiscalant in use, we will not give the company's different customers using the same dosage, but according to the reverse osmosis membrane specifications, a combination of factors water system, handling conditions, water quality and other considerations, different customers the use of different dosage. In other words, everyone is different, you are special, so we need according to actual situation, to develop in line with your actual usage and the use of the program. The third question: your company as a supplier of water treatment agent in the end change has not changed? The real answer is: we have changed! Although water treatment agent manufacturers more, for others Hilead water do not know. But for our company, it is quite clear. We indeed changed, but not with you lopsided. Is still a high efficiency, customer service is still the principle is still the technical and professional capacity, is still perfect after-sales service. We changed, diversified products, more targeted; technical expertise gradually increase; gradually improve the service system; deal with problem-solving skills and gradually become the development of efficient direction ...... For example: Purchasing agent reverse osmosis customers said I need reverse osmosis water treatment agent, equipment used, so we will ask the customer situation in more detail, it is determined from the corresponding description is to use reverse osmosis equipment, reverse osmosis membrane cleaning agents or fungicides or will reverse osmosis membrane scale inhibitor. Different symptoms will use different types of reverse osmosis water treatment agent, choose targeted, quick reverse osmosis equipment for water treatment agent. So as to play effect "to cure the patient," the!
In addition to chemical factors corrosion effects, temperature, metal type, flow rate, also have some effect on the circulating cooling equipment corrosion. one. temperature Temperature, chemical corrosion reaction rate would be increased And the diffusion rate is proportional to the temperature, over-voltage and inversely proportional to viscosity. Increase the amount of diffusion allows more oxygen to reach the metal surface, resulting in corrosion cell depolarization; when over-voltage drop due to oxygen evolution caused by depolarization; viscosity decreases in favor of the anode and cathode depolarization, that is conducive to the atmospheric oxygen and accelerate the dissolution of hydrogen to escape. In the region adjacent to the metal, at different temperatures, it will aggravate pitting, heat the portion of the anode, the site of the cold cathode. Is the mutual influence between factors, temperature, oxygen content decreased, so that the corrosion rate decreased. Effect of temperature on the corrosion rate two. Metal relative area Corrosion rate is proportional to the ratio of the cathode and the anode area Different metals: Nickel - when combined with steel, nickel cathode. Using tube - tube plate connections, steel - Nickel Corrosion is intensified; Ni - steel corrosion is much smaller increase. The same metal: passive film damage. three. Velocity of flow Flow rate is increased so that the corrosion rate increase In the high flow rate region, the thickness of the laminar flow area is reduced, the oxygen easily reach the metal surface, the oxygen depolarization resulted in accelerated corrosion. High-speed water washes away may be the corrosion products of the passivation layer, thus exacerbating corrosion. Portable air turbulence within the condenser and pipeline corrosion four. Different metals Metal ions dissolved in the water depends on the form of the trend into the electrode potential between the metal and ions. With different electrode potential of the metal ion concentration, temperature, and corrosive environment changes. Fives. Metallurgically Uniformity of metals: metal compound inclusions district heterogeneous metal inclusions district, on the grain structure Metal surface condition: total surface defects, such as scratches, cracks and so on. Circulating water piping, especially piping elbow, in the absence of water treatment chemicals and dosing slime stripping agent, in the pipeline at a flow rate of slowing, is likely to cause the deposition of slime fouling.
Water is the most important resource for the production of human life, but, today, to serious environmental damage, serious water pollution, water resources and water pollution prevention, modern society is most concerned about a problem. Uses the user's cooling towers, corrosion and fouling noted implement a common problem with cooling towers, these problems not only affect the normal operation of the cooling tower, and affect the normal cooling tower means, in order to reduce the efficiency and life, the maintenance personnel and material resources of multiple resource investment. The ideal method, scale inhibitor to prevent the occurrence of these defects, the most common use of recycled water is an effective treatment. Chemical substances cooling tower water treatment agent containing the heavy metal of the past in general, however, these heavy metals chemicals environmental pollution reasons. Thus, the prohibition of multi-area restrictions to the development of safe, effective water treatment agents are particularly important. More new, higher chemical composition with hs - scale control agents during the development section 400 of the cooling tower water system, environmental pollution problems can be solved effectively control tower rust, scale systems, piping and equipment gathered to prevent the deposition of the water cycle cooling tower efficiency is greatly improved. Said cooling tower water system, scale inhibitor of God's protection cooling tower. Adequate protection of the cooling tower system is not compromised
Ideal copper preparations should have the following characteristics: 1, the particle size of the product: the level of efficacy and its first application in the coverage of the surface of the plant after the relevant theory, the greater the range covered by the effect will be better, especially as copper preparations such protective fungicides . Coverage of the particle size and particle related to water treatment chemicals, the smaller the particle size distribution is wide, covering better. The study found that 1 micron particle coverage than 2 m high coverage particles 10 times. Thus, particles of copper preparations finer, better efficacy and safety of the plant is also higher; 2, copper content: Although the surface, the amount of the end-use product and the level of content per unit area and there is no direct relationship, if the technical information requirements, need some active ingredient per acre to 25 grams effective control certain diseases 25% of the content of the preparation required 100 grams, if replaced by a 50% content of the preparation of the component, there can be 50 grams. However, different dosage formulations 50 grams and 100 grams on a fact also reflected in the impurity content of the formulation may be less, efficacy will be better for plants and the environment safer. Thus, high levels theoretically better, but it depends on the level of technology and quality can ensure really high; 3, copper chloride content: copper chloride is harmful to plants and the environment, but most products always more or less copper preparations containing copper chloride component. More with less, which is nature itself, it depends on the level of processing technology and copper preparations. A lot of people do not understand, the same ingredients, the same content, the same dosage form, different brands of products on why the price vary greatly. Process is one of the reasons; 4, heavy metals: copper products are the original source of copper ore, copper ore will inevitably be accompanied by other heavy metals. Copper preparations in the production process but also to find ways in which plants and ecologically harmful heavy metals removed. Copper preparations of copper, there are two categories, one category is water-soluble copper, such as copper sulfate; other categories of non-water-soluble copper, such as copper hydroxide and cuprous oxide and the like. Is an aqueous copper sulfate crystals, the general process to obtain copper sulfate five water copper sulfate, blue crystals, also known as blue vitriol. Continuous heating of copper sulfate pentahydrate, will continue the crystallization of water molecules to "crowding out" Get four water copper sulfate, copper sulfate monohydrate and anhydrous copper sulfate crystals. CuSO4 was gray, octahedral crystals, but unstable, it is easy to absorb moisture is converted to water copper sulfate. Production we see most is copper sulfate pentahydrate copper sulphate, blue, wet. Bordeaux mixture, are well known in security, the persistence and the efficacy is superior to the old copper sulfate copper preparations. It is formulated from copper sulphate and lime from the water, copper sulfate, copper hydroxide and calcium hydroxide basic double salts. It features not mentioned here, only explain how to formulate a better Bordeaux mixture. 1, copper sulfate selection: the deeper the blue water is often little more blue in whitening drier better; sour taste, indicating the process is very extensive, very safe to use, no; try to choose small particles snowflake-like crystals; 2, the choice of lime: quicklime lump appropriate, white and best light; 3, the ratio: due to crop flexible deployment, pears, apples, copper more sensitive, should times the amount of lime; grapes copper endurance is better, can be half the amount of formula or an equivalent amount of lime formula; 4, now with the current. The biggest drawback is that the water-soluble copper copper ion release speed, non-water-soluble copper is required under acidic conditions in order to release copper ions, which undoubtedly we need. Next time: a water-insoluble copper preparations. Please attention then.
We understand that development is inseparable from the chiller industry and people's efforts to continue to explore the many features of the chiller has unique side, then, we talk together to solve the content of the chiller cooling tower cleaning measures. Power plant cooling tower is used for cold water structures, according to the unit size is generally a high degree of power plants, depending on the plant water conservation, water recycling a structure. Cold water tower in use for some time should be promptly cleaned. 1, manual cleaning of the cooling tower, the water collecting tank accumulated dirt, dirt; 2, the cooling tower backwater valve is closed, the sump fill up with water, about 50 ℃ hot water QM safe and efficient scale inhibitor dissolved in the slot with flush pump filler repeatedly rinse cycle until the scale, rinse stolen goods ( If a longer period of fillers, aging and cause the collapse of the proposed replacement of filler); 3, disinfectant - sterilization and washing tower packing inside and outside; 4, clean the filter circulation pump will rust, and other foreign filler skin clean, check the filter is intact, if corruption were to replace the new network; 5, all the recovery, management Party acceptance; 6, evacuation Party items, cleaning site health. These are the steps of air-cooled chiller cooling tower cleaning, you can refer to a small series of steps to be clean. Cleaning and maintenance of the machine can not be ignored, and this is a way to extend the life of the machine, hoping to draw everyone's attention. In short, we tell solve chiller cooling tower cleaning measures have above, we have to take to explore and summarize, so that we can better use it.

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