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By sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) due to corrosion of steel it is one of the major secondary oil recovery wells corrosion factor, due to the oil effluent quality conditions suitable for the growth of SRB, leading to the large population of SRB, causing sewage pipelines and oil casing corrosion perforation, metabolites of SRB FeS precipitation also cause formation plugging, resulting in decreased water injection directly affect crude oil production. Currently, prevention of SRB is mainly used fungicide injection method, oil is currently widely used fungicide "1227" due to the prolonged use, SRB for "1227" resistant, the dose from 30mg / L to rise lOOmg / L or so, so that the water treatment costs rising, double quaternary ammonium fungicide is a new and efficient fungicide to inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria SRB resistance, reduce water treatment costs. By application extinct dilution in the test fungicide concentration 50.0mg / L, sulfate reducing bacteria initial bacteria number of 1.4 × 103 Ge / mL, time is lh conditions, the sterilization rate of 99.9%. l40h after sterilization rate remained 99.9%. Double cropping amine salt fungicide small amount, just 50.0mg / L can effectively control the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria, the sterilization speed, long duration, 1h sterilization rate can reach 99.9%, 140h sterilization was still able to maintain 99.9 percent, it is a good prospect of having a new quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant.
Desalination technology is the inorganic salt from seawater, and then remove impurities, bacteria and viruses, and more on the human body harmful substances in the water. Desalination technology in the early years of the last century had already seen, the current international technology has matured, high recovery rate and high quality of water, is the choice for many companies, give us the following description of desalination equipment market development trends: Overview of desalination equipment We always knew the sea due to the high salt than, it is not direct consumption or use. With the rapid development of science and technology, many manufacturers have developed water desalination equipment. Desalination equipment, mainly namely distillation and reverse osmosis. Distillation method is mainly used for large desalination and energy-rich areas. Reverse osmosis applies very wide, and the high rejection rate of the process, so it is widely used. After desalination of seawater quality is better than tap water, it can be used for industrial, commercial, residential and ship, ship to use. Desalination equipment market trends Not just large desalination equipment equipment. Desalination equipment desalination equipment also includes a ship. Different models have different equipment for everyone to use based on the use of space and the geographical environment. Ship desalination equipment, small footprint, long-term use for fishing vessels. Development of desalination equipment can be said that the success of a general welfare of our future life and industrial production, environmental protection have brought great benefits. In the global water treatment industry, desalination plants have been widely used, it has become the gospel of our people. Desalination equipment from investment point of view, by the end of 2014, China's desalination device 98 sets; industrial desalination capacity of 885,400 tons / day, an average of 6,000 yuan / cubic meter of overall investment costs calculated in accordance with desalination equipment by 2014 By the end of our desalination equipment market scale of investment was only 10.512 billion yuan, the scale of less than 2013 investment target "seawater utilization plan" proposed 156-180 billion. Thus, the investment scale desalination facility that is still small, the follow-up market space is still large.
Discharge Permit System is an internationally accepted environmental management system is an effective means of regulation of emissions from stationary sources. Environmental Protection Minister Chen Jining in 2016 the National Environmental Protection Work Conference, the introduction of "pollutant discharge permit system implementation plan" in power, the paper industry in the first two full implementation of pollution discharge permit. CPC Central Committee, the State Council issued the "ecological civilization master plan" clearly, improve emissions permit system. As soon as possible to establish a unified nationwide fair, covering all stationary sources of emissions permits enterprise system, according to the law issued emission permits, polluters must be certified sewage prohibited without a license or not according to the sewage discharge permit. In China, the sewage permit has introduced more than 20 years. The author believes that the full implementation of stationary sources of pollution permits system can not be done overnight, we should start with the typical industries such as the paper industry, establish and gradually expand the implementation of pollution permits after the template. To achieve coverage of all stationary sources of pollution permits management must continually identify all stationary sources sewage while phased implementation of classifications. Pollutant Discharge Permit indicators of environmental quality improvement should reflect the needs of industry and pollution prevention requirements, including the total amount of major pollutants control over the country, regional and industry characteristics of pollutants characteristic pollutants. Pollution permits system not only to regulate the behavior of stationary source emissions, more environmental protection to be achieved for the whole process of enterprise management, reflected in particular by the matters as pollution permits, specifically including the production processes and products, the end of treatment facilities and environmental management requirements . After the issuance of emission permits only the starting point of the implementation of emission permit system, pay attention to guarantee the implementation of the regulatory permits in place, to achieve the desired effect implementation. Pollution permits system is the core of the future management of stationary sources, and therefore to establish a system of regulatory requirements and existing stationary sources to make full convergence. 1 Why can start implementation of the emission permit from the paper industry? In order to ensure a representative system of pollution permits, universality and operational, the selection of typical industries to follow large quantity of sewage, sewage situation is complex, the production of relatively uniform principles. From our point of view wading industry characteristics, select the paper industry is more appropriate. Water Pollution in China papermaking industry is the key industries. According to statistics, in 2014 the national paper manufacturers about 4000, the number of small, but its chemical oxygen demand, ammonia emissions from the country's total industrial emissions of 18.7% and 7.9%, respectively. Paper industry relates to waste water, waste gas, solid waste and other media, direct discharge of sewage containing manner, indirect emissions. Clear environmental management technology and methods of sewage in different ways, as the implementation of emission permits template, stationary sources contribute to environmental management. Polluting enterprises, including paper pulp, paper, pulp and paper conglomerate three kinds of raw materials, production processes, product type is relatively unified, easy to clear sewage licensed content, contributing to the development license management practices. 2 Discharge Permit issued by the management need to focus on what issues? Implementation of the paper industry pollution permits, pay attention to the following issues: First stages, gradually classification stationary sources full coverage. The discharge permit system as the core management of stationary sources, emission permits should achieve full aperture distribution, while ensuring unity issuance, fairness and ease of operation permits, but China's current environmental management are not yet covered all stationary sources. In the paper industry, for example, the third national economic census, paper and paper products for the corporate unit 54000, and environmental statistics according to 85% of the total emissions calculation, more than 4,000 will only be included in the statistical range. Therefore, to achieve coverage of all stationary sources of pollution permits management must continually identify all stationary sources sewage while phased implementation of classifications. For the paper industry, we can start within the enterprise environment statistics start to carry out emission permits issued and summarized results. At the same time, combined with industrial and commercial registration information, conducting environmental statistics outer paper and paper products business information collection, and as a follow-issuing object. In the certification process, it can also be classified according to the implementation status of corporate emissions for pulp, paper and other pollutants emissions from large enterprises to give priority to the issuance of work. Not only relates to the production of paper and paper products business, its production process pollutant emissions rarely may defer consideration paid or exempted. Second pollutant index and licensed content should reflect the characteristics of the industry. Pollutant Discharge Permit indicators of environmental quality improvement should reflect the needs of industry and pollution prevention requirements, including the total amount of major pollutants control over the country, regional and industry characteristics of pollutants characteristic pollutants. The total amount of major pollutants should be included in the national implementation of the control of pollutant discharge permits indicators. Determine the regional characteristics of pollutants may be based on improvement of environmental quality objectives combined with the industry to determine the emissions of pollutants, such as the paper industry emission standards for total nitrogen, total phosphorus and other indicators. Industry Characteristics pollutant index based primarily on industry emissions of toxic pollutants, emissions to select, but also consider the ability of management to monitor the level of support. Paper industry standards for the discharge of AOX, dioxins and other indicators are chlorine bleaching chemical pulping process is characterized pollutants, but can not meet the current level of monitoring daily supervision. In particular, dioxin, detection and laboratory capacity requirements are high, there are fewer qualified dioxin monitoring bodies, high cost, difficult to carry out surveillance for all paper companies contain bleaching chemical pulping process. On the one hand, consider the actual situation gradually integrated into management; on the other hand, as soon as possible to enhance Forced AOX, dioxins monitoring, management level, to meet environmental quality requirements. Mainly clear pollution permits for stationary sources of emissions of specific requirements, including emission limits and emission mode, and emission permits contain the matter should be differentiated. Including pollutant emission limits allowable emission concentration and allowed emissions categories. Wherein the allowable emission concentrations based on emission standards for paper industry performed to determine the concentration limits for the pollutant projects. Allowed emissions can be determined by standard, according to the approved final demand further improve the environmental quality of the receiving water body. Papermaking wastewater discharge methods include direct and indirect emissions. For direct emissions from paper-making enterprises, pollutant emissions can be determined according to its production capacity, product reference unit displacement, emission concentration; for waste water discharged into the centralized sewage treatment plants and paper companies, their pollutant emissions with centralized sewage treatment plant is determined in consultation. After determining the emissions according to the standard, and should be further environmental quality of the receiving water body needs to improve convergence. Environmental quality standards can be taken proportional reduction methods such as the initial allowable discharge amount is calculated to obtain the final permit emissions. While allowing emissions should also be noted regional differences, such as the Taihu Lake basin, Jiangsu, Guangdong and the Pearl River Delta are the implementation of special emission limits, so the amount of pollution permits should refer to the "Pulp and Paper Industry water pollutant discharge standards" (GB 3544-2008 ) requirements determined; Shandong introduced the "paper industrial water pollutant discharge standards" (DB37 / 336-2003), its domestic paper-making enterprises should accordingly determine the amount of pollution permits and the like. In terms of the way the sewage, paper companies exhaust fugitive emissions temporarily difficult to monitor, can temporarily into the licensed content; wastewater discharge should clearly be discharged directly or indirectly emissions, and indicate the discharge destination. Third, the license stated matter should reflect the whole process of management. Affect emission factors has always been throughout the production and the end of treatment. Therefore, pollution permits system not only to regulate the behavior of stationary sources of pollution, environmental protection enterprises should realize the whole process of management, through pollution permits, set forth the matters reflected. Specific content includes production processes and products, the end of treatment facilities and environmental management requirements. The paper industry is relatively simple products, including pulp, paper, paper processing, paper products, and its different products, different materials, different production processes sewage produced enormous. Water contamination, for example, bleached kraft chemical oxygen demand emissions per unit of product is about twice the qualities of chemical wood pulp, corrugated COD emissions per unit of product is about 1/10 of wood pulp. Therefore, in the matters set forth should be marked for paper production process product range, production capacity, production technology, raw materials and other types of content, and other major abatement Recovery production line, sewage link listed separately. End of the treatment is to ensure that key business card by sewage, mainly in the license a clear corporate ability pollution, pollution control technology and other content. Areas where conditions permit should also be other environmental management administrative department requests loading paper companies licensing matters, on the one hand, to guide corporate pollution discharge permits and press; on the other hand, provide the basis for the environmental protection departments on-site supervision and inspection. Topics include alkaline chemical pulp alkali recovery means construction companies, construction companies ammonium pulping lignin recovery, chemical pulping enterprises elemental chlorine or chlorine-free bleaching processes. 3 How to guarantee the implementation of a licensing system in place? After the issuance of emission permits only the starting point of the implementation of emission permit system, pay attention to guarantee the implementation of the regulatory permits in place, to achieve the desired effect implementation. At present, there are stationary sources management regulatory capacity is insufficient, punishment is not enough other issues, low cost illegal sewage, waste-water treatment, Lou Pai have occurred. After the paper is focused on the sewage industry, the focus of regulation should be included in permit areas. For the paper industry Environmental Management, Department of Environmental Protection has issued a "pulp and paper industry site environmental monitoring guidelines (Trial)", "Pulp and Paper Enterprise Environmental Compliance Guide", and launched a major water pollutant emissions of the whole paper industry caliber accounting. Environmental protection departments around the country may be based on the requirements, the use of on-site inspections, written verification, etc., to strengthen the development of papermaking enterprises inspection, sampling encryption rules. Paper products production enterprises should promptly publish, pollutant emissions, emission concentration and other information. We should actively promote the paper industry pollution permits management information platform construction, sewage licensing process for information management, compliance and enforcement database settings, timely and effective grasp of business law, violations of the law. And to take appropriate measures to correct, punish illegal enterprises to realize the full aperture of electronic paper industry sewage management. For paper-making enterprises undocumented sewage discharge permit or in violation of the requirements of the emission of pollutants behavior, by establishing a system of penalties having a deterrent effect, urged by the sewage permit paper companies. As paper companies ordered to stop production, closed developing corporate integrity blacklist limit their mortgages, the implementation of a high amount of fines. Meanwhile, environmental authorities should strengthen due diligence exemption, companies avoid environmental pollution accident, the situation of environmental protection departments to take responsibility occurred. 4 licensing system and existing fixed source management system how effective convergence? Pollution permits system is the core of the future management of stationary sources, and therefore to establish a system of regulatory requirements and existing stationary sources to make full convergence. First, the full implementation of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the National Development and Reform Commission jointly issued the "Opinions on Implementing the National Environmental Policy of the main functional areas" ([2015] No. 92). Issuance of licenses to be consistent with the ecological function area, conservation area, ecological function conservation zones prohibit issuing the ecological environment function areas should be strictly demanding certification. Special requirements for emission permits should follow quality standards and emission standards for the various elements of functional areas, and strictly enforce the requirements according to functional areas, monitoring and implementation of the paper industry waste discharge permit. Second, the paper industry pollution permits and environmental impact assessment system should dovetail system. Paper companies new construction, renovation, expansion project was approved after the environmental impact assessment, that its discharge permit issued to approved emissions as the main basis for allowable emissions authorized. Issued emission permits should include the construction period, commissioning period and officially put into operation after all regulatory requirements, including the type of pollutant discharge, concentration, quantity, discharge mode, destination, time and other requirements, and for the main production process, scale, raw material properties, fuel quality, raw fuel use, pollution control facilities, operating requirements and monitoring requirements. Also provides construction and commissioning period of duration of construction projects. Third, the paper industry pollution permits system should be compensation for the use and trading of emission rights converge. Conducted emissions trading records should be stated in the discharge permit, states should include changes in allowable emissions and concentrations before and after the transaction, the environmental management measures to change the content, do real-time, dynamic adjustment. Fourth, the paper industry pollution permits system should be charging system, environment statistics and environmental enforcement system convergence, the discharge permit daily management of the actual pollutant emissions as pollution charges, an important basis for environmental statistics and environmental enforcement.
Central air conditioning water system piping into the operating environment may provide better results for the central air-conditioning operation. So what can make central air conditioning have such a good effect? ​​Today, Tianjin Daikin central air conditioning repair together to share with you how to maintain the central air conditioning water system piping. Central air conditioning cleaning according to the following procedure walks through the central air conditioning water system piping maintenance methods: 1. Rinse water (pressure testing, leak detection) water washing purposes - is washed away with plenty of water as much as possible the system of dust, sand, metal corrosion products and other loose dirt, and check the system for leaks, gas resistance and dead case, there are problems in time. Flushing, filled with highs, places emissions and control out of the water balance. Flushing water speed 1.0m / s or so, out of the water turbidity is less than 5ppm, when turbidity curve to flatten, rinse the end. 2. fungicide - sterilization cleaning purposes - is to kill microorganisms within the system, and attached to the surface of the biological sludge remover off row after doing washes, filled with water circulation system, adding an appropriate amount of biocide after cleaning cycle, when the concentration reaches equilibrium within the system, to end. 3. degreasing (if there is no or a small amount of grease, this step can be omitted) skimmed purpose - is to remove anti-rust oil within the system, grease and other organic polymer, so complex role in the process of composition more evenly and thoroughly in contact with the inner wall of the cleaning object, so as to promote the dissolution of rust, and other metal oxides patina. During cleaning, degreasing solution flow rate of not less than 0.6m / s. Test degreasing solution alkalinity, oil content and temperature curve to flatten and may end degreasing. 4. Close the cleaning purpose - is to use some highly selective polymers for metal ion complexation and only react with metal ions, producing very high solubility of metal complexes, thus contributing to the rust, patina and other metal oxides and salts dissolve dirt, while the metal substrate without any damage. Cleaning process, the cleaning solution flow rate should not be less than 0.6m / s. Note that the high point of the exhaust vent, low emissions, and damping to prevent vapor lock phenomenon, affecting the cleaning effect. 5. Rinse water rinsing after cleaning this purpose - to remove residual Luo wash off system and solid particles, so that the precipitation of impurities in a short tube, raffinate excluded. 6. Passivation / passivation pre-film processing / pre-film processing purposes - equipment and pipeline after cleaning, the metal surface in a highly active state, it is easy to re-oxidized with oxygen and rust back binding. A passivation / pre-processed film is formed on the metal surface can inhibit the dissolution of metal anodes speed is maintained at a small value, this layer of the surface film becomes passive / pre-film. Complete metal surface passivation film is formed so as to achieve the purpose of rust and corrosion. Thus, after the cleaning equipment and pipelines need passivation / pre-film process, and then be put into use or storage. 7. Check the manual cleaning of the cleaning process in the system, there may be all kinds of miscellaneous grains, if insoluble solid gravel, silt and other deposits in the filter, the lower bends, it will conduct a comprehensive machinery such dirt deposits, manual cleaning. 8. Check the reset checked, removal or isolation temporary system, temporary blind, the air conditioning system is reset to a normal state for future debugging enabled.
Environmental inflection point draws near, under pressure to ensure environmental protection high investment growth has experienced large-scale environmental governance "Twelve Five" period, China's current environmental pollution curbed growth, improve environmental quality begins to slow, the next task will be gradually made incremental environmental protection pollution control steering stocks pollution. 2017, "Atmospheric ten", "Water 10" will usher in a number of tasks assessment point, under the local government's strict examination, we expect to invest the entire environmental protection industry will continue to grow in the last two years . Irrigation and water conservancy welcome five years of high growth, capital help accelerate the integration of leading the next five years, most water-saving irrigation can increase the quality of agricultural products directly to incremental, most effectively increase the operating efficiency of agriculture, it is expected to take the lead in large-scale investment in social capital, ushered in five years of rapid growth. Agricultural water price reform, water rights trading and triple PPP model driven, water-saving irrigation in "Thirteen Five" during the annual market space is expected to reach 450-600 billion yuan, far exceeding the market space, "five-second." Both capital and technology listed companies more credit advantage and capital advantage in cooperation with the government, to more quickly staking their claims, to increase market share in the industry, the rapid development process and enhance their long-term competitiveness. Investment to accelerate environmental monitoring, water quality and soil monitoring gradually from east China's environmental monitoring market has been in a state of rapid growth, CAGR of 27% since 2007. In carrying out environmental monitoring of the vertical and promote third-party environmental monitoring, driven by the Ministry of Environmental Protection of greater powers, greater supervision, environmental monitoring industry will get more rapid growth. Soil and water quality monitoring in the field of environmental monitoring are the two most recent two years is expected to outbreaks. According to our statistics, as of June 2016 the national groundwater monitoring network has been built more than half over schedule planning, surface water pollution monitoring will gradually outbreak. "Soil ten" provisions by the end of 2017 to complete the state-controlled soil monitoring points set up to build the national soil quality monitoring network for environmental monitoring of enterprises to provide a new growth point. Follow the leading regional environmental protection investment opportunities at this stage, in the areas of environmental protection has been a leading large-scale, limited room for growth in market capitalization. Engaged in hazardous waste, water-saving agriculture and other segments is expected to aid the leading environmental resources accumulated expansion through mergers and acquisitions and other forms of environmental protection services, copy clean water source, the first growth path leading shares, the growth of regional enterprises. The next 35 years these companies is a major opportunity for development, so that the area of ​​environmental protection of small and medium sized enterprises have greater investment value. Investment strategy to face down the industry trend of the overall valuation of the stock configuration to find a balance in the middle of valuation decline and enhance the industry boom. We believe that saving and monitoring of two plates rising boom, high growth can provide certainty. By business model constraints, environmental protection enterprises rely on endogenous growth rate far less than by epitaxial growth and high integration efficiency management level. Looking in the main business area surrounding the environmental quality of the acquisition of assets, and further deepen the expansion of product lines or service segments capacity has become a common choice for environmental protection enterprises. Against this trend, we believe that small and medium capitalization, strong regional environmental protection enterprises more investment value.
Circulating water various types of bacteria, causes algae; circulating cooling water bacteria mainly heterotrophic bacteria, autotrophic bacteria, fungi, yeast and so on. That organic-carbon source of the bacteria are called heterotrophic bacteria, autotrophic bacteria is carbon dioxide, carbonate as a carbon source bacteria. Molds, yeasts are not photosynthetic eukaryotes. Fungus harm is done mainly in the slime deposited overlay heat transfer tubes in the heat exchanger and associated fluid wall, reducing the cooling water cooling effect, increasing operating costs. Fungi on metal corrosion and not directly, but it produces a sticky deposits will build on the metal surface corrosion cell differences caused by metal corrosion and sticky deposits cover the metal surface, the metal to accelerate the formation of rust and pitting corrosion dirt. Circulating water various types of bacteria, harmful algae; algae circulating water hazards that the dead algae will become the cooling water system suspended solids and sediments. In the heat exchanger, to provide food for bacteria and mold. After the formation of clumps of algae into the heat exchanger, the heat exchanger can clog the pipeline, reducing the flow of cooling water, thereby reducing the cooling effect of cooling water. Resulting sediment covered metal surface corrosion due to the formation of differentiated cells and often occur corrosion under the scale. Fungicide - sterilization of the heat exchange tube of microbial slime in protected peeling clear, improve heat transfer performance of heat transfer equipment.
At the 45th World Environment Day is approaching, China Academy of Engineering academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tsinghua University, School of environment, Professor Qian Yi 5 days in Beijing said after continuous efforts, China's key water pollution water quality have improved, but water pollution situation is still very serious, performance in the black odor water, algae outbreak did not eliminate, heavy metal pollution threat to food security, cancer villages in the water's edge. Tsinghua University, 5, held a water safety and ecological civilization construction academic report, 80 year old money is easy to bring academic report. She said that from 1950 to 2015, China's population growth of 2.5 times, the GDP growth of 55.5 times, but to pay attention to China's economic growth miracle is at the expense of resource consumption, this model is not sustainable. Released by the Chinese government in April 2015 "water pollution prevention and control action plan" is put forward, to 2020, the Yangtze River, Yellow River, Pearl River, the Songhua River, Huaihe River, Haihe River, Liaohe seven key river basin water quality good proportion in general to achieve more than 70%; by 2030, the seven key river basin water quality good proportion in general to achieve above 75%. Qian Yi said that to achieve this goal, the water pollution prevention and control work to from the end of treatment to river basin water environment comprehensive management of change, from pure water quality management to basin water ecological management of change, from target gross control to capacity amount control changes. Has done more than 50 years of water pollution prevention and control of money easily said that in 2014, China's total discharge of sewage amounted to 716 tons, of which 510 tons of domestic sewage discharge, water pollution prevention and control is still not optimistic. The three principle of circular economy is reduction, recycling, resource reduction, reduction should be put in the first place. Qian Yi said that the urban pollution sources of governance, not only need to solve the problem of sewage treatment plant of fund-raising, design, site selection, construction and other, but also need to address the urban drainage facilities, sewage treatment plant operation security mechanism and other issues. She proposed to vigorously promote clean production, while accelerating the pace of construction of urban wastewater treatment plant, the implementation of waste water resources, energy, but also to effectively protect drinking water sources, improve the safety of drinking water. "Water pollution prevention task, need efforts unremittingly." Qian Yi suggested that the adjustment of economic structure, the implementation of clean production and recycling economy, the implementation of water pollution prevention and control of life cycle management, the realization of waste water resources, energy.
Abstract: mainly introduces the purpose of circulating cooling water system cleaning and pre film, Jigang coking plant circulating water cleaning and pre film and its effect. Keywords cleaning pre membrane circulating water heat load 1 general situation Jinan Iron and Steel Group Corporation coking plant (referred to in the coking plant of Jinan Iron and Steel Group) with an annual output of 105 million tons of coke, with 6 million m3 / h gas purification system, 4 million T / a coal tar processing system, 1.5 million T / a of refined benzene processing system. Circulating cooling water system in warm water and cold water, warm water effluent index 28-320C, backwater 41-450C, circulating water 4000m3 / h, mainly for primary cooler in warm water section, lean, ammonia washing, refined benzene, benzene and other warm water cooling equipment, by cooling tower evaporation cooling. Low temperature circulating water index 16-180C, backwater 23-250C and circulation of China / h, mainly for primary cooler low temperature water, lean, washing ammonia, benzene and other low temperature water cooling equipment. In winter, the low temperature circulating water cooling tower by evaporative cooling; summer, low-temperature circulating water cooling by LiBr refrigeration mechanism. 2 the purpose of cleaning and pre membrane 2.1 the purpose of cleaning The cooling water system in the process of operation, the metal surface of its cooling equipment often produce dirt (sediment) accumulation. Most cooling equipment made of carbon, the thermal conductivity of the carbon steel 46.4-52.5W/ (M - K), but the thermal conductivity of carbonate 0.464-0.697W / (m, K), only about 1% of the carbon steel, oil layer of the thermal conductivity is lower for the 0.117W / m in the K.), only the carbon steel of about 0.25%. Therefore, the existence of dirt will greatly reduce the cooling effect of the heat transfer. At the same time, dirt to heat transfer heat exchanger in cooling water channel cross-sectional area and the cooling water flow becomes smaller, lower cooling effect; the dirt will appear in different parts of the same metal in different temperature regions, causing hot corrosion. Microbial slime and grease is the base of microbial growth and nutrients, microbial slime or avoid biocide shelter. The oxygen consumption of oil will increase the cooling water, reducing the effect of biocide. Dirt also prevents the cooling water corrosion inhibitor and the pre membrane agent to reach the metal surface of the cooling device, so that they are difficult to react with the metal to produce protective film, thereby reducing the corrosion inhibitor and the protective effect of the pretreatment film. The dirt is covered on the metal surface, which creates the condition for the corrosion under the scale. Therefore, whether it is to improve the cooling effect to consider, or to prevent corrosion to consider, the cooling water system should be regularly cleaned. 2.2 The purpose of the pre membrane The purpose of the metal cooling equipment in the cooling water system is to form a complete and corrosion-resistant protective film on the metal surface with a high concentration of corrosion inhibitor solution. After the protective film is formed, the metal cooling equipment can be put into normal production. At this time, the use of a low concentration of corrosion inhibitor can repair the normal operation of the protective film to be mildly damaged, so that the corrosion rate of metals in the allowable numerical range, the international standard for 0.125mm / A. A large number of experiments show that, no matter what kind of inhibitor, the corrosion and fouling of the carbon steel can be effectively controlled if the corrosion and fouling of the carbon steel can be effectively controlled without the pretreatment of the membrane. Therefore, the first use of high concentration of corrosion inhibitor film, and then use a low concentration of corrosion inhibitor to run much more economical, while the direct use of low concentration corrosion inhibitor to control the corrosion is much more effective. Analysis of fouling formation in 3 cooling water system (1) inorganic salts brought in by supplementary water. Due to the following reasons, the formation of dirt from the cooling water. (1) in operation process, cooling water by evaporation and concentration, some very small solubility inorganic salts, such as calcium sulfate, silicate concentration exceeds its solubility, in the heat transfer surface precipitation fouling of inorganic salts; II to add water into the of Ca (HCO3) 2 in the cooling tower in aeration and on the wall of the heat exchanger for heat and emit CO2, the decomposition for the small solubility of calcium carbonate scale; (3) add water into ferrous ions and in cooling tower by oxygen oxidation for the high iron ion and generates very little solubility of ferric hydroxide and precipitation. (2) the metal cooling equipment in the system is dissolved in the water to dissolve oxygen corrosion and corrosion products, such as low cost and high price of iron oxide or hydroxide. (3) add water into the suspended solids -- sediment, dust, debris and cooling water in cooling tower from the air washing down the dust and slag, in the running process of the cooling water, they coalesce into larger particles, flow slowly deposited in the dirt. (4) to add water or air to the micro-organisms in the cooling water system in the formation of the formation of the sticky mud. (5) the formation of the materials, such as tar, benzene leakage into the cooling water system in the formation of dirt. Oil is often attached to the metal surface and plays the role of dirt binder. (6) the addition of water treatment agent, due to improper management and the formation of dirt, such as Ca3 (PO4) 2, Zn (OH) 2, etc.. 4 cleaning and pre film program 4.1 cleaning solution I plant does not stop cleaning program is divided into two steps. The first step is sterilization and algae killing agent and slime stripping agent used, the second step is acid to get rid of the corrosion and scale. Cleaning of the specific programs: (1) to the circulating water with an oxidizing agent of chlorine and chlorine net 150mg / L, with hydrochloric acid to regulate the pH value of circulating water for 7.5-8.5, condensed running 24-48h, the circulating water can not be sewage. (2) adding reducing agent 1227150mg / L, using hydrochloric acid to adjust the pH value of the circulating water as 7.5-8.5, adding scale inhibitor CW-1930450mg / L, running 24h. If the circulation of the bubble in the water, add the appropriate amount of anti foaming agent. Drainage to the turbidity is less than 20mg / L. (3) and metal corrosion inhibitor Lan-826150mg / L, hydrochloric acid, strict control of circulating water pH is 4.0-5.0, at this time to pay special attention to the Ca2 +, total hardness, iron, turbidity, pH changes; (4) running 18-24h after, when the Ca2 + and turbidity does not rise or increased marginally, a large number of sewage replacement, pickling is completed. 4.2 pre membrane program After cleaning, and then do not stop the film, the specific steps are as follows: (1) through the replacement of sewage, the circulating water Fe2+<1mg / L, Ca2+<500mg / L, turbidity <20mg / L; (2) adding pre filming agent 200mg / L, CW-19304200mg / L, concentrated operation 4-6 days; (3) emission of total phosphorus in circulating water of replacement dropped to 4.5 to 6.0, into normal operation. 4.3 data analysis This data is summarized in the middle temperature circulating water in June 2001. June 5th 8:00 am closed sewage, voted to increase the Net chloride; June 6th morning 8:30 bactericide 1227, circulating water changes are shown in table 1. June 7th 5:00 row Pollution displacement. June 8th morning 8:30, the circulating water turbidity is less than 20mg / L, cast iron corrosion inhibitor Lan-826, plus hydrochloric acid, strict control of circulating water pH value is 4.0-5.0, the index changes in table 2. When the turbidity and Ca2 + increase slightly, June 9 at 11:00 a.m. pickling is completed, sewage replacement, when the turbidity <20mg / L, Ca2+<500mg / L, Fe2+<1mg / L, were pre membrane treating for 4 days, the sewage replacement and transferred to normal operation. 4.4 cleaning and pre membrane precautions (1) in the pickling must be informed of the water units, the material is aluminum and copper heat transfer equipment to separate, otherwise the hydrochloric acid on the chemical reaction of aluminum and copper is very fast, will cause the leakage of heat transfer equipment accident. (2) add acid must be added to the flow of water area, so that the pH value of the water will soon reach a uniform, will not cause the pH value is too low for the accident. (3) pre film circulating water to have certain calcium ion concentration, if there is no calcium ion concentration is too low, it can not form or not well formed poly colloidal calcium phosphate ions, can not form a good protective film. (4) pre membrane must be cleaned before completely, form an active metal surface, if the iron surface is not active or partially activated, corrosion current is obviously reduced, not very good for electrodeposition process. The film incomplete or to slow the rate of film.
1, early planting quantity should be sufficient Winter planting before Qingming Elodea, little Huang Zao, pole grass, Jin Yuzao, Hydrilla verticillata and submerged plants in crab pond. Plants can not only for river crab provides good natural palatable food and habitat, the increase of dissolved oxygen, the decomposition of organic matter, improve water quality, improve the quality of Chinese mitten crab, and lush plants tank can prevent moss generation. 2, the use of chelated copper or chlorine dioxide to kill moss This method is generally applicable to moss pond. Worth noting is moss massive death of decay, the end of the pollution caused, by the change of water, water diversion, Mordecai method for water and sediment was improved, the general use of EM bacteria profile water and bottom soil quality improvement agent. This method in Eriocheir sinensis molt period with caution. 3, 2, 2- dibromo -3- Propionamide kill moss This fungicide is currently more popular green sterilization algicide, algicidal substance and the force is strong, broad antibacterial spectrum, easy degradation, with fast hydrolysis in the environment, in the low dose water treatment agents play dual advantages of high effect, after use there is almost no remains, on the culture environment without pollution, is an ideal environmental protection type to kill algae garlic lobster products. The drug has the advantages of good bactericidal performance, can effectively prevent the moss died after a large number of bacteria breeding, reducing the drug delivery. 4, the use of prometryne to kill moss Prometryne by blocking the photosynthesis of the dead moss. Prometryne for crabs and low toxicity, easy degradation in water, its usage is 0.2-0.3 mg / L.
1, the most basic is the boiler water treatment method with dosing method, and pot replenishment of chemical water treatment and continued. Through pot and external treatment may also have residual hardness, in order to prevent the boiler corrosion and fouling, still can add some water treatment chemicals. 2, boiler water treatment can not completely prevent boiler scale, especially the generation of dirt in the sewage is not timely is easy to knot second scale. 3, in the boiler dosing process has no pollution to the environment. Unlike ion exchange water treatment method dispose of natural water impurity, regeneration after discharge amount of impurities, but also to discharge regeneration of a large number of surplus products and recycling agent. But the dosing processing method is the main impurities in water into insoluble dirt, will not cause pollution to nature. 4, boiler dosing method using pure formula to match the quality of the water supply, usually not suitable for high water hardness. 5, boiler water treatment does not require complex equipment, the cost is low, investment is small, easy to operate.


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